Addison's disease

Addison's disease (after the English physician Thomas Addison) is also called autoimmune adrenalitis or primary adrenal insufficiency. Previously, tuberculosis was the most common cause of progress...

> Read more

Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. The term 'dementia' describes a set of symptoms which can include loss of memory, mood changes, and problems with communication and reasoni...

> Read more

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by thromboses in the larger arteries and veins and thrombotic microangiopathy.

Indications: Suspicion of antiphospholipid syndrome. Thromboemb...

> Read more

Autoimmune hepatitis

Different types of autoimmune hepatitis can affect both sexes of all ages. The clinical picture may vary from a mild or even subclinical disease to acute relapses of liver failure. The onset of the...

> Read more

Churg-Strauss syndrome

Churg-Strauss syndrome mainly involves the medium to small blood vessels of the lungs but eventually also affects the gastrointestinal tract, heart, skin and kidneys. It may also affect the periphe...

> Read more

Coeliac disease

Coeliac disease (gluten intolerance) is defined as a typical mucosal change of the small intestine, caused by gluten in the diet. In ”classical” coeliac disease the patient has diarrhea, weight los...

> Read more

Complement deficiency

The complement system is part of the innate immune system consisting of about 30 proteins. An intact complement system is required for protection against infection and for maintaining the internal ...

> Read more

Congenital heart block

Antibodies against Ro or La can be transferred from mother to child through the placenta. These antibodies may cause neonatal lupus, whose most serious manifestation is congenital heart block. In m...

> Read more

Connective tissue disease

A connective tissue disease is any disease that has the connective tissues the body as a target of pathology. Connective tissue is any type of biological tissue with an extensive extracellular matr...

> Read more

CREST syndrome

Scleroderma is a systemic autoimmune disease primarily affecting the skin but often also involving the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory, renal, cardiovascular, and the genitourinary systems....

> Read more

Crohn's disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and the intestine. The two most prominent IBD conditions are Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative colitis. Although sim...

> Read more

Cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is a genetically conditioned disease, where a defective ion channel in the airway epithelium gives rise to mucus. The viscous mucus gets colonized by bacteria. In a young child stap...

> Read more

Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is due to an autoimmune destruction of the insulin producing b-cells in the Langerhans islets in the pancreas. The destruction is probably triggered by one or more unknown environme...

> Read more

Drug induced lupus

Through various mechanisms some drugs may give lupus like syndromes as a side effect. They may activate a latent lupus or cause a separate syndrome called drug induced lupus. The symptom comprises ...

> Read more

Glomerulonephritis

Suspicion of glomerulonephritis arises as a rule when finding haematuria and/or proteinuria. The onset symptoms may also arise due to renal impairment. When investigating the urine sediment you usu...

> Read more

Goodpasture syndrome

Goodpasture syndrome is a rare autoimmune disease characterised by lung haemorrhage, rapid destruction of the kidney and the presence of antibodies to glomerular basement membrane (GBM).

Th...

> Read more

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (Wegener's granulomatosis)

Wegener's granulomatosis, or Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), is an incurable form of vasculitis that affects the nose, lungs, kidneys and other organs. The incidence of GPA is 10 cases per ...

> Read more

Graves' disease

Graves' disease is a type of Thyroid disease. These are primarily conditions that affect the amount of thyroid hormones being released. Graves' disease, like most thyroid dysfunctions such as hypot...

> Read more

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a type of Thyroid disease which are primarily conditions that affect the amount of thyroid hormones being released. Most thyroid dysfunctions such as hypothyroidism or hy...

> Read more

Hereditary angioedema (HAE)

The disease is characterized by recurrent attacks of angioedema of the skin and mucous membranes and can be life threatening at the engagement of the airways. Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is caused ...

> Read more

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)

The clinical entities ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease, the former with a predilection for rectum and colon, the latter for the ileocecal region and other bowel sections, are traditional...

> Read more

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS)

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare presynaptic disorder of neuromuscular transmission. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare presynaptic disorder of neuromuscular trans...

> Read more

Limbic encephalitis

Limbic encephalitis is a form of encephalitis, a disease characterized by inflammation of the brain. Limbic encephalitis is caused by auto-immunity: an abnormal state where the body produces antibo...

> Read more

Microscopic polyangiitis

Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is characterized by pauci-immune, necrotizing, small vessel vasculitis without clinical or pathological evidence of granulomatous inflammation. The annual incidence i...

> Read more

Multiple Sclerosis / Neuromyelitis optica (Devic’s syndrome)

MS and NMO are inflammatory, demyelinating diseases that affect the central nervous system (CNS). In MS the inflammation leads to the patchy destruction of the myelin and the nerve impulses are sto...

> Read more

Myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by weakness and tiredness in the skeletal muscles.

Indications: Suspicion of myasthenia gravis or thymoma.

Antibodies ag...

> Read more

Neuroendocrine tumors

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) often present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. They are neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous systems. Many are benign, while s...

> Read more

Neuropathy – unclear/Guillain-Barré syndrome

Polyneuropathy where the cause is unknown or is suspected to be autoimmune. Gangliosides are a group of glycolipids that contain sialic acid and that occur in the nervous system. They are integrate...

> Read more

Paraneoplastic syndromes and limbic encephalitis

Paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system and limbic encephalitis are a group of rare disorders where auto-antibodies can be used as diagnostic markers.

CLINIC: It can often be difficult...

> Read more

Pemphigus / Pemphigoid (Bullous dermatosis)

Autoimmune bullous skin diseases include a group of serious diseases with blisters and erosions on skin and mucous membranes. The skin has adhesion molecules that stick the keratinocytes to each ot...

> Read more

Polymyositis / Dermatomyositis

An unusual systemic inflammatory disease that mainly affects the muscles. Skin and muscle symptoms occur in dermatomyositis. PM and DM have the same clinical symptoms but different pathogenesis. DM...

> Read more

Primary membranous nephropathy (PMN) or idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN)

Primary membranous nephropathy (PMN) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the kidney glomeruli leading to renal impairment.

Indications: Suspicion of primary membranous nephropathy (PMN) or i...

> Read more

Renopulmonella syndrome

The combination of acute glomerulonephritis with hematuria and renal dysfunction with pulmonary hemorrhage is characteristic of Goodpasture's syndrome The combination of acute glomerulonephritis wi...

> Read more

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the synovial joints, which leads to joint swelling, progressive joint erosion and ultimately lead to cart...

> Read more

Scleroderma / systemic sclerosis

A disease with an unclear etiology, which affects many organ systems, mainly the skin and the blood vessels but the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract may also be affected.

Indications: Sus...

> Read more

Sjögren's syndrome

Sjögren's syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease in which immune cells attack and destroy the exocrine glands that produce tears and saliva. Sjögren’s syndrome, like SLE, is a type of autoimmune...

> Read more

Stiff person Syndrome

Stiff person Syndrome is a rare disease of severe progressive muscle stiffness of the spine and lower extremities with superimposed muscle spasms triggered by external stimuli or emotional stress. ...

> Read more

Sudden deafness

Sudden hearing loss affects primarily middle-aged people and develops as a rule unilaterally in the course of one to three days.

Indications: Suspicion of autoimmune cause of sudden hearing l...

> Read more

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), like Sjögren’s syndrome, is a type of autoimmune connective tissue disorder that may have both genetic and environmental causes. Connective tissue disorders are ...

> Read more

Ulcerative colitis

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and the intestine. The two most prominent IBD conditions are Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative colitis. Although sim...

> Read more