Autoimmune hepatitis

Different types of autoimmune hepatitis can affect both sexes of all ages. The clinical picture may vary from a mild or even subclinical disease to acute relapses of liver failure. The onset of the disease may also be cryptogenic cirrhosis. In autoimmune hepatitis type 1 70% of the patients have antibodies against smooth muscle, 10% have antibodies against SLA/LP. Isolated occurrence of anti-SLA/LP has been reported. ANA is often positive in autoimmune hepatitis type 1 with varying patterns. Autoimmune hepatitis type 2 is not common in northern Europe and mainly affects young women. The disease is defined by the presence of antibodies against LKM, LKM1 or LC1.

Indications: Suspicion of autoimmune liver disease

Most patients with primary biliary cirrhosis have antibodies against mitochondria (AMA and M2). There is no specific serological marker for primary sclerosing cholangitis, even if these patients in 20-30% of the cases show a positive ANA with a pattern of nuclear dots. Some patients have atypical ANCA with immunofluorescence investigation.