Vial

INDIVIDUAL TEST 986

Neurogranin

Indication
Alzheimer's disease, memory examination

Method
ELISA

Reference range
<365 pg/mL (>60 YOA)

Interpretation
The postsynaptic protein Neurogranin is expressed in neurons of regions in the brain most typically damaged by Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s patients showed increased levels of neurogranin compared to those of other neurogenerative diseases Neurogranin is important for memory creation and function, elevated levels of NG can be detected at the early stages of the degenerative process, which is considered to mirror the development of symptoms in AD. Even at early stages of the disease, dysfunction and loss of synapses are directly linked to cognitive symptoms such as memory disturbances and are thought to occur earlier than neuronal loss. In fact, the degree of dementia has been found to be more associated with synaptic loss compared to amyloid plaque and tangles. Elevated levels in CSF can be detected early in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

References
  • Agnello L, Lo Sasso B, Vidali M, Scazzone C, Piccoli T, Gambino CM, Bivona G, Giglio RV, Ciaccio AM, La Bella V, Ciaccio M. Neurogranin as a Reliable Biomarker for Synaptic Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease. Diagnostics (Basel). 2021 Dec 12;11(12):2339. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics11122339. PMID: 34943576; PMCID: PMC8700711.
  • Kvartsberg H, Lashley T, Murray CE, Brinkmalm G, Cullen NC, Höglund K, Zetterberg H, Blennow K, Portelius E. The intact postsynaptic protein neurogranin is reduced in brain tissue from patients with familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol. 2019 Jan;137(1):89-102. doi: 10.1007/s00401-018-1910-3. Epub 2018 Sep 22. PMID: 30244311; PMCID: PMC6338696.
  • Agnello L, Gambino CM, Lo Sasso B, Bivona G, Milano S, Ciaccio AM, Piccoli T, La Bella V, Ciaccio M. Neurogranin as a Novel Biomarker in Alzheimer's Disease. Lab Med. 2021 Mar 15;52(2):188-196. doi: 10.1093/labmed/lmaa062. PMID: 32926148.

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Vial

ENSKILD ANALYS 986

Neurogranin

Indikation
Alzheimers sjukdom, minnesutredning

Metod
ELISA

Referensintervall
<365 pg/mL (>60 år)

Provmaterial
Likvor

Tolkning
Neurogranin är ett postsynaptiskt protein som uttrycks rikligt i i de områden som drabbas av Alzheimers sjukdom. Nivån av Neurogranin är förhöjd hos patienter med Alzheimers jämfört med patienter med andra neurodegenerativa sjukdomar. Neurogranin är viktigt för minnesfunktionen, och ökade nivåer ses i tidiga stadier vid den degenerativa processen och verkar kunna spegla symptomutvecklingen vid Alzheimers. I tidiga stadier av sjukdomen kan dysfunktion och förlust av synapser ses redan innan förlust av neuron kan påvisas. Tidiga stadier av demens tycks vara kopplad till denna process där även bildning av amyloida plack och tangles ingår. Förhöjda nivåer kan ses i likvor tidigt i sjukdomsförloppet och redan hos patienter med mild cognitive impairment.

Referenser
  • Agnello L, Lo Sasso B, Vidali M, Scazzone C, Piccoli T, Gambino CM, Bivona G, Giglio RV, Ciaccio AM, La Bella V, Ciaccio M. Neurogranin as a Reliable Biomarker for Synaptic Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease. Diagnostics (Basel). 2021 Dec 12;11(12):2339. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics11122339. PMID: 34943576; PMCID: PMC8700711.
  • Kvartsberg H, Lashley T, Murray CE, Brinkmalm G, Cullen NC, Höglund K, Zetterberg H, Blennow K, Portelius E. The intact postsynaptic protein neurogranin is reduced in brain tissue from patients with familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol. 2019 Jan;137(1):89-102. doi: 10.1007/s00401-018-1910-3. Epub 2018 Sep 22. PMID: 30244311; PMCID: PMC6338696.
  • Agnello L, Gambino CM, Lo Sasso B, Bivona G, Milano S, Ciaccio AM, Piccoli T, La Bella V, Ciaccio M. Neurogranin as a Novel Biomarker in Alzheimer's Disease. Lab Med. 2021 Mar 15;52(2):188-196. doi: 10.1093/labmed/lmaa062. PMID: 32926148.
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